Chronicle of Kyivan Rus'
The following are some English-language media resources that we recommend to further your knowledge about Lemkos and the historical events that affected this ethnic group.  Some of the recommendations below are related to broader, more general history (still relevant) and others are more specific to Lemkos.  Click the links for ordering information.

Scholarly Books 

God’s Playground: A History of Poland. Volumes I and II. By Norman Davies. (Revised Edition, 2005.) "The most comprehensive survey of Polish history available in English, God's Playground demonstrates Poland's importance in European history from medieval times to the present. Abandoning the traditional nationalist approach to Polish history, Norman Davies instead stresses the country's rich multinational heritage and places the development of the Jewish German, Ukrainian, and Lithuanian communities firmly within the Polish context. Davies emphasizes the cultural history of Poland through a presentation of extensive poetical, literary, and documentary texts in English translation. In each volume, chronological chapters of political narrative are interspersed with essays on religious, social, economic, constitutional, philosophical, and diplomatic themes. This new edition has been revised and fully updated with two new chapters to bring the story to the end of the twentieth century."
· Volume I: The Origins to 1795.
· Volume II: 1795 to Present.

The Culmination of Conflict: The Ukrainian-Polish Civil War and the Expulsion of Ukrainians After the Second World War.  By Stephen Rapawy. Ibidem/Columbia University Press (2016) "As Germany fought the Soviet Union during World War II, a much smaller but equally vicious struggle was unfolding in southeastern Poland, fueled by longstanding ethnic and territorial conflicts between Poles and Ukrainians. Both sides organized large partisan armies and sought control over territory each deemed integral to their postwar national visions. The violence reached a fever pitch in the years immediately following the war. This comprehensive study surveys Polish–Ukrainian relations dating back to the tenth century. Rapawy follows centuries of ethnic strife, population shifts, and the formation of national states after the First World War on multi-ethnic territories, illuminating the long-term historical processes that informed later events."

The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus (1569-1999). By Timothy Snyder. (2004) "Timothy Snyder traces the emergence of four rival modern nationalist ideologies from common medieval notions of citizenship. He presents the ideological innovations and ethnic cleansings that abetted the spread of modern nationalism but also examines recent statesmanship that has allowed national interests to be channeled toward peace."

Poland and Ukraine: Past and Present.  Edited by Peter J. Potichnyj. (1980) A collection of scholarly essays edited by Prof. Peter Potichnyj, related to the historic Polish-Ukrainian conflict. Many of the essays discuss the historical antecedents that led to the ethnic cleansing events of the post World War II period. "This collection of scholarly essays on relations between Poland and Ukraine is still timely and relevent. The chapters of the book explore historical legacy, cultural relations, economic ties and communications, World War II and its aftermath, as well as political issues between the two nations. Contributors include Ivan L. Rudnytsky, Andrzej Kamins'ki, Frank E. Sysyn, Orest Subtelny, Jozef Lobodowski, George G. Grabowicz, Vasyl Markus, Volodymyr N. Bandera, Geroges Mond, Borys Lewytzkyj, Roman Szporluk, John Basarab, Yevhen Shtendera, Hugh Seton-Watson, Jaroslaw Pelenski, and Adam Bromke."

Ukraine: A History.  By Orest Subtelny. (4th Edition, 2009). "In 1988, the first edition of Orest Subtelny's Ukraine was published to international acclaim, as the definitive history of what was at that time a republic in the USSR. In the years since, the world has seen the dismantling of the Soviet bloc and the restoration of Ukraine's independence - an event celebrated by Ukrainians around the world but which also heralded a time of tumultuous change for those in the homeland. While previous updates brought readers up to the year 2000, this new fourth edition includes an overview of Ukraine's most recent history, focusing on the dramatic political, socio-economic, and cultural changes that occurred during the Kuchma and Yushchenko presidencies. It analyzes political developments - particularly the so-called Orange Revolution - and the institutional growth of the new state. Subtelny examines Ukraine's entry into the era of globalization, looking at social and economic transformations, regional, ideological, and linguistic tensions, and describes the myriad challenges currently facing Ukrainian state and society."

A History of Ukraine.  By P.R. Magosci. (1996) "Presented in ten sections of roughly five chapters each, (A History of Ukraine) proceeds chronologically from the first millennium before the common era to the declaration of Ukrainian independence in 1991. Each section provides a balanced discussion of political, economic, and cultural developments; each chapter ends with a summary of the significant issues discussed. The whole is complemented by forty-two maps and twenty tables. Featured are sixty-seven 'text inserts' that include excerpts from important documents and contemporary descriptions as well as vivid explanations of specific events, concepts, and historiographic problems. Students will also benefit from the extensive essay on further reading that provides bibliographic direction for each of the sections in the book."

Zakerzonnia: Ethnic Cleansing of the Ukrainian Minority in Poland. 1944-1947.  Edited by Taras Hunczak. (2012)  Collection of essays in English recounting the plight of Ukrainians in Poland.  Features essays from renowned scholars such as Timothy Snyder, Roman Drozd and Taras Hunczak.  Scroll down on the link to order.

Redrawing Nations: Ethnic Cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948. Edited by Philipp Ther and Ana Siljak. (2001) "After World War II, some 12 million Germans, 3 million Poles and Ukrainians, and tens of thousands of Hungarians were expelled from their homes and forced to migrate to their supposed countries of origin. Using freshly available materials from Polish, Ukrainian, Russian, Czechoslovak, German, British, and American archives, the contributors to this book provide a sweeping, detailed account of the turmoil caused by the huge wave of forced migration during the nascent Cold War. The book also documents the deep and lasting political, social, and economic consequences of this traumatic time, raising difficult questions about the effect of forced migration on postwar reconstruction, the rise of Communism, and the growing tensions between Western Europe and the Eastern bloc. Those interested in European Cold-War history will find this book indispensable for understanding the profound—but hitherto little known—upheavals caused by the massive ethnic cleansing that took place from 1944 to 1948."

The Lemkos: Articles and Essays.  Edited by Paul Best and Jaroslaw Moklak. (2013) "This book deals with the Lemkos, the East Slavic population which formerly inhabited the Southeast corner of today's Poland. The Lemkos massively immigrated to North America before 1914. Those who remained and survived the huge battles on the Carpathian Front in World War One settled in to rebuild their lives between the wars, but World War II and its aftermath were great blows to the Lemko people. Nearly all were either deported to the Soviet Ukraine (1944-1946) or forcibly resettled in Northern and Western Poland (1947-1951) in a thorough ethnic cleansing of the Carpathian Mountain region. Today, both in North America and in Europe, Lemkos are attempting to recover their heritage. It is hoped that this book will in some small way assist in that endeavor."

Encyclopedias and Guides

Lemko Studies: A Handbook.  By Bogdan Horbal. (2010) Organized into several useful chapters that span the subjects of topography, history, politics, religion and more, Dr. Horbal's book also includes an excellent bibliography section that will help you to obtain further readings about Lemkos. Lemko Studies: A Handbook features a readable text about the physical and human geography of the Lemko Region and about the language, culture, religion, and history of the Lemko people; over 7,000 bibliographical citations and sources that exist in archives, in published form, and on the Internet; extensive information on Lemko diaspora communities in the United States, Canada, Ukraine, and western Poland; a detailed list of sources available on specific Lemko villages and diaspora communities—a genealogist’s dream!; a comprehensive index (90 pages) of every personal, geographic, and organizational name mentioned in the text.

Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture.  Edited by Paul Robert Magosci and Ivan Pop. (2002) "The encyclopedia contains over 1,100 alphabetically arranged entries in areas such as individuals, organizations, political parties, periodicals, historical terms, geographic regions, historical events, and on themes such as architecture, archaeology, cinema, communism, ethnography, geneaology, geography and economy, historiography, history, the internet, language, literature, nationalism, printing and publishing, and radio and television. The first encyclopedic work on Rusyns to appear in English, this book has laready proven to be an indispensable resource for European and Slavic studies specialists, and for general readers interested in international relations and nationalism.  The Revised and Expanded Edition has been fully updated: New data and references have been provided for most existing entries and many entirely new entries have been added.

Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine.  Hosted by the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. "The most comprehensive source of information in English on Ukraine, its history, people, geography, society, economy, and cultural heritage." Contains revised and updated contents of the five-volume Encyclopedia of Ukraine (University of Toronto Press, 1984-93) edited by Volodymyr Kubijovyc (vols. 1-2) and Danylo Husar Struk (vols. 3-5).

Nonfiction Books

Church in Ruins: The Demise of Ukrainian Churches in the Eparchy of Peremyshl. By Oleh Wolodymyr Iwanusiw. (1987)  Church In Ruins illustrates the ruins of Ukrainian/Greek Catholic churches of the Archeparchy of Peremyshl in southeastern Poland. While a few of the churches have been relocated and preserved by Polish skansen museums and others were converted to Polish Roman Catholic churches, the majority of the churches were destroyed as the result of World War II and the post-war communist ethnic cleansing campaigns that drove Ukrainians from their ancestral homelands.  The author attempted to visit every one of the 690 churches (or their former sites) in some 650 municipalities, photographing existing churches and commissioning an artist to create renderings of the destroyed churches.  The photographs in this book represent Lemko and Boyko wooden sacral architecture. CLICK HERE for a PDF version, originally downloaded from www.diasporiana.org (in a different format.)

Ukraine-Rus and Western Europe in the 10th to 13th Centuries. By Natalia Polonska Vasylenko.  (1964).  "The state of Kievan Rus' which flourished in the 10th to 13th centuries in Eastern Europe was the first form of political organization of the ancestors of the present-day Ukrainians well-documented by history. The Ukraine-Rus of the Middle Ages, which was a powerful state on par with Byzantium and the German Empire, had close contacts with both as well as with other kingdoms of Europe, including Scandinavian states, England and France. The political, economic and cultural bonds made it an inalienable part of Europe. Professor Natalia Polonska-Vasylenko traces ancient Ukraine's relations with Western Europe; in particular, the close dynastic links between the ruling houses of Kiev and west European states."

Scattered: The Forced Relocation of Poland’s Ukrainians. By Diana Howansky Reilly. This recently published (2013) nonfiction book details the deportation and scattering of Diana's own family members, who were divided between Ukraine and western Poland in the post World War II deportation campaigns. Diana's book juxtaposes her family's story with the larger historical context of what was happening in southeastern Poland in the post-war years. 

Blossoms on a Rooftop. By Luba Czerhoniak Fedash. Luba Fedash, a Lemko-Rusyn from the Gorlice region published this interesting memoir in 2006. Back cover: "Luba Czerhoniak Fedash was born shortly before the beginning of World War II in the region of the Carpathian Mountains known as Lemkovyna, now part of Poland.  Blossoms on a Rooftop is the exciting story of her early life, first as a child forced to grow up much too fast by the horrors of the Nazi occupation, then as a young girl caught upon the forced resettlement of thousands during Poland's 1947 Operation Vistula (Akcja Wisla), and finally as an immigrant teen trying to make a new life for herself in the United States. Luba's determination and her love of God and Nature saw her through to ultimate triumph over adversity and a happy life in her adopted country." 

Lectures, Panels & Podcasts

"Lemkos of the Carpathians: A History of Ethnic Strife" (2010). Roundtable at U.S. Ukraine Foundation featuring guest speakers Stephen Rapawy and Corinna Wengryn Caudill. The presentations provide an overview of the historical Polish-Ukrainian conflict, discussions about post-war ethnic cleansing, and personal experiences of Lemkos who were deported and resettled between 1944-1947. Click here to watch the presentations online.

"The Many Worlds of Kyivan Rus': A Conversation with Professor Simon Franklin." Cambridge Ukrainian Studies Podcast. Dr. Franklin is one of the world's foremost authorities on Kyivan Rus'


"Vohon' i Zbroja" ("Fire and Weapons") (2008). Ukrainian language documentary film by Myroslav Iwanek featuring a powerful musical score created by Ukrainian composer Roman I. Drozd. During the interwar period, Polonization policies placed a great deal of pressure on Ukrainian cultural life - the Polish government closed churches, limited educational opportunities, prevented Ukrainians (non Roman-Catholics) from entering general civic life, and attempted to Polonize Ukrainian ethnic territory in Volhynia and other regions. These events fomented a resistance movement that would culminate in a post-World War II struggle for Ukrainian national liberation. Out of this nationalist movement emerged the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) and the Ukrainska Povstanska Armiia (Ukrainian Insurgent Army or UPA), collectively known as "The Ukrainian Underground." The Underground sought to establish an independent Ukraine on "historical Ukrainian territories" (generally defined as territories that had been part of Kyivan Rus' and were settled by ethnic Ukrainians.) This film documents UPA's post-war attempts to prevent the wholesale deportation of Ukrainians from Poland's Transcurzon region. The film includes commentaries by scholars such as Yevhen Misilo and Bogdan Huk as well as former UPA members. Watch the documentary online here.

"Three Stories of Galicia." (2010) This documentary by Olha Onyshko and Sarah Farhat "...retraces the incredible moral choices made by very ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances: a Jewish family that chose to save the life of its worst enemy, a Ukrainian woman who endured the theft of her children to save her country and a Polish priest who risked everything to end the sectarian hatred that tore at his parish." Order the DVD here.

"The Soviet Story"(2008) by Edvins Snore.  This 2008 documentary film by Latvian filmmaker Edvins Snore exposes the war crimes of the Soviet regime, a topic that is relevant to Lemko and Ukrainian studies.  "This is a story of an Allied power, which helped the Nazis to fight Jews and which slaughtered its own people on an industrial scale.  Assisted by the West, this power triumphed on May 9th, 1945.  Its crimes were made taboo, and the complete store of Europe's most murderous regime has never been told.  Until now."  Contains 25 minutes of bonus interviews with experts discussing Soviet terror; Holodomor famine in Ukraine (1932-1933); Gestapo-NKVD agreement, pro-Nazi stance of French Communists in 1940; the Soviet legacy; and prosecuting Soviet crimes against humanity.

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